I don’t go to school!
I’m talking about Giovanni.
I have never seen Piero.
Hi everyone, and welcome to Podcast Italiano, a YouTube channel and a podcast for learning Italian. My name is David, and today it is (better: we have) a video of spoken language. It can be said that even if honestly, it is not an expression of the common grammatical structure in Italian, especially in spoken language, so I think “spoken language use” is the correct column.
I declare that I have not prepared this episode yet, I am improvising Arm (Outside the cuff), So I hope this is not a disaster. This is a fact (The thing is,) I am reading a college book called “Sentence Types and Word Order”. A boring thing…-that is, I like it because I am a nerd of these things-anyway, it talks about so-called marked sentences, and I will now explain what they are, and I said to myself: ” Well, this may be interesting for Podcast Italiano and those of you who are learning Italian”.
But what is a marked sentence? They are sentences with unusual word order. Different from usual. Therefore, in Italian, the sentence structure is subject-verb-object.
I eat apples and Luca watches movies.This is the structure Kanonika (= regular, standard).
But Italian is very flexible, so there are so-called marker sentences, which are other sentences that don’t follow this structure. There are various types. At the beginning I gave you some examples.Now, the classification in this book is very, very complicated, so I just want to give you a few examples of the types I did I think (=I believe, I think) the most important. Let us look at them.
1) Sentence with subject after verb
So, first we have a sentence with the subject following the verb.
In Italian, we can theoretically say:
Piero call me
But usually in Italian, we don’t say: “Piero call me”. We say (or we will say):
Marked sentence (subject after verb)
Piero called me
This is why these phrases are important because they make your Italian more natural. Sometimes, but not always, we can also use intonation to create contrast. If I say:
“Pierro ate it” it mean “I didn’t eat it,” Giovanni didn’t eat it, “Pippo didn’t eat it,” “Piero had it.”
2) Dislocation to the left
The second type of marked sentence is the so-called left dislocation, it is not a dislocation type… it is not Dislocated shoulder (Shoulder dislocated), This is not a disease.it is just Transfer (Transfer) A phrase… a word on the left. What does it mean? Instead of saying:
“I have never seen Piero”
you can say:
Marked phrase (left shift):
“I have never seen Piero.”
Or instead of saying:
“I told the truth to John” We can say “I told (him) the truth to John”.
If we have an object complement, So “Who have I never seen? Piero”, when we make this move, we must say: “Pierro doesn’t it I have never seen it before”. So it must be said: “Piero non it I have never seen it”. We cannot say: “I have never seen Piero.”
This is a mistake made by many Russians, because in Russian you can make this transformation, the same, but without pronouns, Pickup (“Pickup”) Pronouns. In Italian, we must restore or repeat pronouns. If you want to say a natural phrase, this is mandatory. So “Pierro I never met him” or,
“I haven’t watched a movie” -> “I haven’t watched a movie”.
“I bought an apple” -> “I bought an apple”.
But if it is not an object complement, So it is another complement, type “A…”, so:
“I told Giovanni the truth”, “the” is not mandatory, we can say:
“I told Giovanni the truth”. It’s ok.
So this is the difference. Now you may ask me “Okay, but what’s the use of doing it harder, what’s the use of it?”
It’s hard to explain, it’s hard, but in linguistics topic.
I mean, the subject is you…what you comment on. So if I say:
“I have never seen Piero”, I’m (yes) the topic, and the comment is that I haven’t seen Piero. Do not? Topics and comments.
But if I say:
“Pierro, I have never seen him” It’s the opposite. PIERO is the subject, PIERO is the subject of the sentence. “I have never seen him” is my evaluation of Piero. In other words, the subject is what we are talking about.
It’s a little hard to explain, then Maybe you don’t need to know (Maybe you don’t need to know), But that’s why we do these things, because if I say:
“Pierro, I have never seen him” This sentence is about Piero.
But if I say:
“I have never seen Piero” This sentence is about me. In other words, they are two different things.
If I say:
“I never read newspapers” This is a word about me.
But if I say: “I never read newspapers” The sentence is about the newspaper, and the subject of the sentence is the newspaper.
3) Dislocation to the right
Dislocation, or this dislocation, can also go to the right. So we can say:
“I’ll go there by train, to Rome”,
“I will bring dessert tomorrow.”
What we move is the subject of the sentence, a bit like before. The difference is that the theme here, which is the final content, is what we already know. If I say:
“I go there by train, to Rome”. Rome is… we already know that I am going to Rome. For this, I can put it at the end.
If I say:
“I will bring dessert tomorrow” We already know what we are talking about. We have already mentioned dessert, it is a “Known information (Known information), We will bring sweetness. New information is what we will bring tomorrow.
I will give you an example that I think clarifies. So, if… there is a party, there is a party at Mario, I will ask: “But who brings what to Mario?” In other words, we have to bring cakes, we have to bring a lot of things, food, Drink (Drink). Who brought what to Mario? I can say:
“I bring dessert, you bring wine.”
This is new information, we have not yet talked about desserts, we have not yet talked about wine. That’s why I couldn’t answer the question “But who brought what to Mario?” I said:
“I bring dessert” or “You bring wine”. —— can not say
No, because we haven’t talked about dessert or wine yet.
But if the problem is:
“Sorry, guys, who brought the cake? Oh “But who brought the dessert?” (There may already be a misalignment in the problem).
Then the answer can be:
“I’ll get dessert” or “I’ll get wine”.
Because we have already talked about this, we know a piece of information.
4) Frasie’s people
Finally, I still want to tell you about clauses. “Split” means to split. In a sense, they are separate sentences, they are sentences like this:
“Only with you, I can relax.” In other words, we can say:
“I can only relax with you”,
Frase Market (Tear)
Or the segmented sentence becomes:
“Only with you, I can relax”.
What is the use of doing this here?There is another concept here, which is FocusSo, it is different from the subject. The subject is what we are talking about. The focus is the reason we say this, isn’t it?Where we want Catch our attention (Draw our attention). So if I say:
“Only with you, I can relax” The point is “only with you”.
For this, we created this thing to change the focus.
Or we can also say:
“It’s my son who eats the cake”, or
“(My son) ate the cake.”
Both work, right? In fact, we are changing the focus. Let me give you another example. Someone told you: “You know, I’m in Italy, I tried to speak French, but people didn’t talk to me, they didn’t answer me in French”you can say:
“Are you stupid? They speak French in France! In Italy, they speak Italian”. Do not?
So the point is “they speak French in France” and feel the tone.
Here, these are some types of tagged sentences. They are difficult, but listen again (in order to understand them better). Let’s say… Why am I making this video? One is because I think it is interesting, and the other is because I think the next time you find these strange, abnormal, and non-standard structures, you will say, “Ah, maybe this is a powerful phrase! Maybe It is a sentence that is misplaced to the left or the subject is placed at the end”.
Maybe you can Realize (Realize)I think if you start to become aware of these things, then maybe you can use them too, but the first step is to realize that the ability to notice what is happening in the language is important.
I hope this video is not a mess, thanks for watching, if you go below and follow the link in the description, you can also listen to it again. Or if you listen well, you can also see me, just use the new camera I bought to see this face in high definition.
Ah, I also left you a link Apple Podcast, If you would like to comment on this podcast, I would be very, very grateful, because others might find Italian podcasts in this way. Okay, that’s it, thanks for listening, see you in the next video. Hello there!